Hypoglossal Nerve Disorder
What is Hypoglossal Nerve Disorder
Hypoglossal nerve to the motor nerve damage cause the tongue muscle paralysis and atrophy, performance for Shenshe tend to the sick side.
Symptoms of Hypoglossal Nerve Disorder
Simple hypoglossal nerve damage disease side the genioglossus paralyzed when Shenshe, the tip of the tongue to the affected side, tongue muscle atrophy disease side. Both sides of the hypoglossal nerve paralysis genioglossus completely paralyzed tongue in the floor of the mouth can not be extended, severe speech and swallowing disorders.
Lower motor neuron palsy clinical performance dysphagia, eating food from the nostrils choked out, a hoarse voice, speech difficulties, unclear articulation, reflex pharyngeal palate. The nuclear damage stylish tongue muscle bundle fibrillation.
Upper motor neuron bulbar palsy manifested as tongue muscle movement difficulties, swallowing, pronunciation, speech difficulties. This muscle atrophy, gag reflex exists jaw reflex enhancement can appear strong cry strong laugh.
What Causes Hypoglossal Nerve Disorder
(1) the medulla oblongata
① midline / base of the medulla oblongata infarction Dejerine medulla oblongata front syndrome; ② brainstem hemorrhage; ③ multiple sclerosis, with lesions involving the cranial nerve in the medulla oblongata; ④ glioma; ⑤ syringomyelia disease; ⑤ bulbar polio; the ⑦ botulism, diphtheria (bilateral cranial nerve palsy); ⑧ degenerative diseases, such as true palsy associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Shy-Drager multiple system atrophy orthostatic hypotension.
(2) subarachnoid / skull base
① Chiari malformation; ② flat base of the skull; ③ chronic meningitis or malignant meningitis; ④ sarcomatoid diseases that can affect any cranial nerve, unilateral or bilateral; ⑤ vascular disease, such as the vertebral artery anomalies bulky expansion aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: ⑥ skull base tumors, such as meningioma, nerve sheath tumor (schwannoma, nerve fibers tumor), transfer tumor (such as lung, breast, prostate, nasopharyngeal carcinoma), primary bone tumors (such as chordoma, osteoma, sarcoma), glomus jugulare chemoreceptor tumor; ⑦ trauma, such as severe basal skull fracture. Penetrating injuries, surgical injury: neck enlargement surgery, carotid endarterectomy; the ⑥ infection, such as malignant otitis media, mucormycosis, aspergillosis.
(3) remote (nasopharynx / carotid space)
① tumors, such as squamous cell carcinoma, metastatic tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, glomus jugulare; ② trauma, penetrating injuries, such as surgical injury; ③ vascular thrombosis.
① benign recurrent cranial nerve palsy, more common in the V, Ⅶ, Ⅷ XII cranial nerves; ② unilateral benign on the palate paralysis more common in boys, secondary infection can be self-healing.