What is Nickel Poisoning
Nickel (nickel, Ni) is a silvery-white metal. Atomic weight 58.71, density of 8.9 g/cm3, melting point, l453 ℃, boiling point 2800 ° C. Nickel has a high temperature, corrosion-resistant performance. When heated to 700 ° C to 800 ° C, still being oxidized, and can maintain a certain strength in a humid environment; nickel surface. Can form an oxide film to prevent further oxidation;, but also anti-corrosive environment of the acid, an alkali salt. Nickel has good mechanical strength and plasticity, good processing performance; having such characteristics at low temperatures can also be, and therefore the preparation of high-temperature alloy, an important element of the stainless steel alloys. Ingestion can cause nickel poisoning.
The toxicity of nickel and its soluble salts, their solubility and human ways.
Symptoms of Nickel Poisoning
Nickel poisoning symptoms: nickel dust or soluble nickel salts strongly irritant contact dermatitis or atopic eczema can occur, namely nickel scrapie. Skin lesions at the site of contact and disease, and later spread, can affect the body. The first itching skin, after the papules, herpes, severe suppuration, ulceration. 1 to 2 weeks after the disengagement, dermatitis heal. A small number of nickel poisoning cases continued to ask long or frequently repeated episodes. Large intake of soluble nickel salts, dizziness, vomiting, acute gastroenteritis. Rhinitis, sinusitis or pharyngitis, can produce long-term inhalation of nickel sulfate or nickel plating solution vapor. A few minutes after the inhalation of nickel carbonyl poison gas dizziness, headache, weakness, tremor, unsteady gait, nausea, eye irritation, throat irritation, chest tightness, shortness of breath, etc., a few hours after the above-mentioned symptoms were relieved or disappeared. Nickel poisoning patients l 2 ~ 36 hours after the remission of sudden chest tightness, shortness of breath, severe breathing difficulties, the signs and symptoms of a typical pulmonary edema associated with diffuse interstitial pneumonia performance. More associated with elevated body temperature, myocardial damage, enlargement of the liver, jaundice, urine, abnormal white blood cells was significantly higher, convulsions, hallucinations, delirium and other psychiatric symptoms.
What Causes Nickel Poisoning
Nickel cause of poisoning:
1. The nickel smelting utilize nickel sulfide ore or oxide ores, such as pentlandite [(Ni.Fe) 9S8], nickel pyrrhotite [(Ni, Fe) x Sy, nickel magnesium silicate ore [(Ni , Mg) Si03, H20] such as roasting, smelting into nickel sulfide were nickel metal by electrolysis. Nickel and its compounds in this process may contact the dust fumes.
2 prepared stainless steel, soft magnetic alloy, nickel-chromium, nickel-copper, nickel, aluminum, nickel, cobalt and other non-iron-base alloys.
3 nickel-plated job.
Machinery Manufacturing Manufacturing crucible, utensils, precision tools, medical equipment, instrumentation, etc.
5. Atomic energy industry as a thermal neutron mechanical chopper.
6. Manufacture of nickel-cadmium batteries.
Nickel powder can be used as a chemical catalyst.
Nickel poisoning depends on the solubility of the different nickel compounds, dose size and pathways, and other factors. Soluble nickel salts completely due to absorption of its toxic damage significantly larger than the metal nickel; intravenous, subcutaneous injection of nickel salt toxicity was significantly greater than the oral and inhalation.
Nickel salts given by mouth or by injection, the animal can cause acute gastrointestinal mucosa irritation phenomenon, and generate substantial damage to the heart, brain, lung, kidney, edema, hemorrhage, and degeneration pathological changes; may cause protein feces, urinary amino acids, urea clearance rate reduction of symptoms.
Nickel poisoning can affect the endocrine antagonism of insulin, which can cause hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia increase interference pituitary function, so the increase in ACTH secretion, reduce the secretion of prolactin, adrenal insufficiency. Nickel can affect electrolyte metabolism, blood potassium, calcium, magnesium decreased, sodium, chloride increased, blood calcium decreased, resulting in decreased myocardial conduction and excitability, muscle twitching. Inhalation of nickel powder or nickel salt, may produce respiratory tract irritation damage. Animal inhalation or different ways to give a nickel powder or nickel compounds can induce cancer. Nickel to DNA damage is due to nickel ions can be closely integrated with the nucleic acid molecule and the DNA composition Ni - nucleic acids - histone complexes affect the role of the RNA polymerase, or to interfere with the normal transcription of the DNA, the mRNA metabolism block, cause genetic mutations and cancer; Secondly, the nickel the RNA chemical template can or regulation of DNA nucleoprotein activity decreased, causing the normal genetic differentiation was inhibited; nickel can still inhibit benzopyrene hydroxylase activity in the body, so that 3 4 - benzopyrene accumulate in the body, or the transmission of information by blocking cells to the cell, or by excitation of lipid peroxidation, and promote carcinogenic effects. Nickel can still cause the immune function decreased, resulting in destruction of the host immune surveillance mechanisms, resulting in tumor-prone. Contact allergic of nickel poisoning sensitization of the skin, is a delayed type hypersensitivity. Nickel can induce immediate allergic reaction, causing respiratory allergic asthma.
Tests and Diagnosis for Nickel Poisoning
Nickel poisoning diagnosis:
The nickel content of nickel workers exposed to blood and urine are often higher. Of healthy human urine nickel levels substantially 0 ~ 0.187umol / L (0 ~ 11ug / L), the average value for of 0.72 ~ 0.75umol / L (4.2 to 4.4ug / L). The nickel content in whole blood mean approximately 0.082umol / L (0.48ug/dL, 0.29 ~ 0.7ug/dL, atomic absorption spectrometry). Nickel skin allergy diagnosis by skin antigen patch test has been confirmed. L% nickel sulfate sticking in the skin after 72 hours, such as produce blisters, eczema and other skin change is positive. Vitro examination of cell-mediated immunity, such as nickel-antigen of the lymphocyte transformation test and leukocyte migration inhibition test positive can be used as evidence of the body's allergic to nickel.
Nickel poisoning differential diagnosis:
Has a history of exposure to high concentrations of nickel or nickel compounds; clinical have identified respiratory irritation; chest X-ray shadow of inflammatory; except after other causes of disease; considered for nickel-induced acute poisoning. Diagnosis and grading standards see CBZ28-2002.
Treatments of Nickel Poisoning
Nickel poisoning treatment:
General where nickel especially in patients with history of exposure to the nickel carbonyl should be immediately removed from small drug scene to fresh air, lying still warm. Remove contaminated clothing and wash contaminated skin and hair. Mild symptoms should close clinical observation 72h.
. Early onset symptoms of nickel poisoning treatment (1) 1 0.5% isoproterenol inhalation ② lmL atomization to dexamethasone 2mg ~ 5mg inhalation.
(2) even if the nickel poisoning symptoms in patients with very light, but also to the hospital for observation, and to take the following measures to prevent pulmonary edema: ① hydrocortisone l00mg ~ 200mg or dexamethasone 10mg ~ 20mg intravenous 5% glucose solution 500mL; ② to restrict fluid volume; ③ The prednisone 5 mg to 10 mg / prevention also available, 1 6h orally.
(3) diethyl dithiocarbamate: for the first time intramuscular dose of 25 mg / kg, 24 h total does not exceed 100mg/kg, also oral l-day 2.0g Dayton clothing, after 0.5 g per , 3 to 4 times a day, taking the same amount of sodium bicarbonate to relieve gastrointestinal reactions. This drug in the treatment of acute nickel carbonyl poisoning have a significant effect, combined with the organization in the nickel, the formation of a non-toxic complex excreted via urine. Poisoning immediately after use, can reduce the occurrence of pulmonary edema. The course of treatment depending on condition, generally used in patients with no symptoms of poisoning, the urine nickel dropped to normal.
3. Symptomatic treatment of nickel poisoning
(1) to prevent and treat pulmonary edema.
(2) pay attention to the protection of the substance of the heart, liver, kidney and other organs.
(3) prevention and control secondary infection in a timely manner.
(4) Nickel dermatitis according to general contact dermatitis treatment (to see dermatergosis Chapter). Reported in the literature, topical ointments, or 10% edetic acid ointment, coating the surface of the skin, has a good effect using 10% diethyl disulfide, ammonia sodium formate (Dithio-carb). It was also reported the use of plastic, coated frequent skin contact with nickel containing 1 0% CaNa2-EDTA to prevent nickel penetrate the skin barrier to play an effective role to protect the skin from damage and sensitization of nickel.