Pediatric Testicular Cancer
What is Pediatric Testicular Cancer
Testicular cancer in children is uncommon, accounting for about 1% of pediatric solid tumors -2%, accounting for 2% of all testicular tumors. Adults, germ cell tumors accounted for 95% of testicular cancer, but only 60% to 75% of pediatric and benign majority. Pediatric malignant testicular tumor death reports. Most found in the 2-year-old, about 60% of the cases seen in the first 2 years.
Symptoms of Pediatric Testicular Cancer
With adult patients, the most common manifestation is painless mass in the scrotum, local pain or heavy feeling, acute pain and tenderness are rare. Misdiagnosed as testicular torsion, epididymitis, inguinal hernia or hydrocele. In addition to the testis rhabdomyosarcoma, or the non-germ cell tumors of the endocrine, testicular cancer most of the children had no clinical symptoms. Approximately 10% of the performance of children with metastatic cancer like: supraclavicular lymph nodes, lung metastases coughing and breathing difficulties, duodenal metastasis caused by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, and violations of the psoas muscle and nerve roots caused by lumbar back pain. Qualitative hard lumps palpable physical examination, should pay attention to the supraclavicular or without abnormal chest, abdomen, groin and breast.
Main installments Boden and Gibb (1951) and the United States Collaborative Group TNM staging.
What Causes Pediatric Testicular Cancer
Tests and Diagnosis for Pediatric Testicular Cancer
Scrotum light test helps with hydrocele identification. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) as a tumor marked an important value in in testicular tumor staging and follow-up monitoring. B ultrasound can be used to determine testicular tumor and inguinal lymph node metastasis, CT can be found in the retroperitoneal lymph node metastases and lymphography not found paraaortic lymph node lesions. Metastatic lymph nodes larger by urography can be found in the proximal 1/3 ureter shift obstruction.
Treatments of Pediatric Testicular Cancer
The treatment of testicular cancer is determined by its pathological nature and staging. The treatment can be divided into surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Stage I disease only the high refined by Fuse off and orchiectomy, such as the scrotum for biopsy or tumor with scrotal skin adhesion, required removal of the Ministry of scrotal skin. After 3 years every 3 months later abdominal X-ray, abdominal B ultrasound, serum levels of AFP. II Phase III pediatric abdominal mass, use in combination with chemotherapy (commonly used drugs: vincristine, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, bleomycin), tumor shrinkage to 18 weeks and then by laparotomy necessary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, surgery plus radiotherapy.